Bariatric(weight loss) Surgery

A doctor may recommend weight loss surgery, or bariatric surgery, as a last resort for people who are so obese, it is a danger to their life.
Like any operation, weight loss surgery carries risks. Neither is it the end of the weight loss process, as a lifelong diet and exercise regime will be recommended to help maintain a healthy weight
Surgery usually takes several hours. After surgery, you awaken in a recovery room, where medical staff monitors you for any complications. Your hospital stay may last from three to five days.

Types of bariatric surgery

Each type of bariatric surgery has pros and cons. Be sure to talk to your doctor about them. Here's a look at common types of bariatric surgery:
Roux-en-Y (roo-en-y). This is a type of gastric bypass surgery, and is the most common method of gastric bypass. This surgery is typically not reversible. It works by decreasing the amount of food you can eat at one sitting and reducing absorption of nutrients. The surgeon cuts across the top of your stomach, sealing it off from the rest of your stomach. The resulting pouch is about the size of a walnut and can hold only about an ounce of food. Normally, your stomach can hold about 3 pints of food. Then, the surgeon cuts the small intestine and sews part of it directly onto the pouch. Food then goes into this small pouch of stomach and then directly into the small intestine sewn to it. Food bypasses most of your stomach and the first section of your small intestine, and instead enters directly into the middle part of your small intestine.
Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. This is another type of gastric bypass surgery. In this complex, multipart procedure, about 80 percent of the stomach is removed. The valve that releases food to the small intestine (the pyloric valve) remains, along with a limited portion of the small intestine that normally connects to the stomach (duodenum). The surgery bypasses the majority of the intestine by connecting the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum near the stomach (duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion). This surgery both limits how much you can eat and reduces the absorption of nutrients. While it's very effective, it has more risks, including malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. It's generally used for people who have a body mass index greater than 50.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). In this weight-loss surgery, the surgeon positions an inflatable band around the uppermost part of the stomach. When the band is inflated, it compresses the stomach, acting like a belt that tightens. This separates the stomach into two parts, with a very small upper pouch that communicates with the rest of the stomach through a channel created by the band. The small upper pouch limits the amount of food you can eat. The band can be adjusted so that it restricts more or less food. Because of its relative simplicity, LAGB is one of more common weight-loss surgeries. However, it may lead to less weight loss than may other procedures, and you may need to have the band adjusted periodically.
Vertical banded gastroplasty. This procedure, also called stomach stapling, divides the stomach into two parts, restricting how much food you can eat. The upper pouch is small and empties into the lower pouch the rest of your stomach. Partly because it generally doesn't lead to adequate long-term weight loss, this weight-loss surgery isn't as popular as other types.
Sleeve gastrectomy. A sleeve gastrectomy, also called a vertical sleeve gastrectomy, is a newer type of weight-loss surgery. The sleeve gastrectomy is actually the first part of the surgical process for a biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. However, the sleeve gastrectomy portion of surgery may be all that's needed to lose sufficient weight in some cases the second part, biliopancreatic diversion, isn't needed. With sleeve gastrectomy, the structure of your stomach is changed to be shaped like a tube, which restricts the amount of calories your body absorbs.
Which type of weight-loss surgery is best for you depends on your specific situation. Your surgeon will take many factors into account, including your body mass index, your eating habits, your health problems, any previous surgery and the risks of each procedure.